I'm trying to differentiate the 2015 requirement for controlling the nonconforming output from 2008's control of nonconforming product. Here's my take on this: In 2008 clause 1.1 General - Note 1, "product" only pertains to "product intended for, or required by, a customer" and "any intended output resulting from the product realization processes". Thus, IMHO, controls required are limited to those nonconforming products that will be delivered to the customer of the organization. See the image below with particular attention to the output of the Product Realization box. In 2015, controls are now required to be present on all types of processes (i.e core or support or management) with nonconforming outputs - not just those that resulted from the product realization processes as depicted above. I arrive on this understanding due to the schematic representation of the elements of a single process in Figure 1 of the 2015 version. See image below: This is my humble interpretation of the difference between ISO 9001:2008 clause 8.3 and ISO 9001:2015 clause 8.7. I would like to invite the other forum members to share their thoughts on this.